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So today I would like to present about the structure and operating principle of the differential in cars, then in cars it is mandatory to have a differential, because when the car moves on the road, the car does not. does not always go straight, but there will be times when it will have to go into corners or go on curves, then when cornering, we see that in the simulation, we will see the turning radius of the wheel on the outside, it is always larger than the wheel on the inside. Therefore it is imperative that the outer wheel rotates faster than the inner wheel, if there is no differential, assuming these two wheels are the driving wheels, then it rotates at the same speed, so when cornering will be very difficult. If there is a corner, the inner wheel will force it to slip, if the road surface and the wheel have good friction, when it slips like that, it will cause a torsion force. car…that. Therefore, it is imperative that we install the differential between the two driving wheels to avoid the above phenomenon, for rear-wheel drive vehicles, the differential is installed in the position between the two wheels, for the rear-wheel drive vehicle. With front-wheel drive vehicles, the differential is usually integrated with the transmission, while in two-wheel drive vehicles, it also has a differential called the center differential, which is installed in the center of the axles. Connect the front bridge to the rear bridge.
Then the central differential, it has the effect of distributing the force between the two bridges, which can be divided in different proportions, and on electric cars, the differential is often attached to the electric motor, through Just a few more gears. Then we will first consider the structure of a simple differential like it? Then a normal differential, also known as an open differential, then we will see that it will include:
- A pineapple gear is attached to the crankshaft to receive the movement coming out of the gearbox.
- The thing is the outer gear, it's the largest gear, this gear rotates smoothly on the hub of the wheel.
- Next you will see that there are two red planetary gears, which are fixed to the ring gear.
- And finally two sun gears, which are two gears that are connected to two semi-axles and each of these semi-axles is driven to a wheel.
When the car is traveling on a straight road, the force that is acting on the two wheels is equal, then the two wheels will rotate at the same speed, so by observing this case, we will see that the two planetary gears, it does not rotate around its own axis, and when the car is running on curves or cornering, the resistance force on the inner wheel will always be more. is the wheel on the outside. Therefore, the outer wheel it must rotate faster, and the inner wheel, it will have to rotate slowly, then as shown in the picture, the car is turning to the right, then the sun gear the right sun gear will rotate slower than the sun gear on the left, so when the two sun gears it rotates at different speeds, it will cause its planetary gear to rotate. So it's the planetary gear mechanism that rotates when the two sun gears it rotates at different speeds, it will distribute the force so that the wheel on the outside of it will receive more. the driving force rather than the wheel on the inside.
That will help us to corner in a smoother way, but this type of open differential mechanism has a problem, ie when we get into the situation that the car is bogged down and one wheel is stuck. The car is just bogged down. As for the other wheel, it still has good traction, then the wheel that gets bogged down will…. the force of resistance acting on it, it will be very small. As for the other wheel, it will… because it still has good traction, its resistance will be large, then according to this type of differential mechanism, it will cause the wheel to sag. the mud will spin, while the wheel that still has grip, it will still… it will not receive any movement, so we will get into a situation where we are stuck stuck. Then to overcome such a situation, people will introduce mechanisms that are differential locking or design a differential that prevents slipping, then the differential locking mechanism can be configured according to In the form of a latch or a clutch design on the semi-axle, these mechanisms can be actuated manually, hydraulically, pneumatically or electrically.
When these mechanisms are activated, it will lock the two semi-axes together and they will move at the same speed, then this will be done when we will move into the the road is bad, and when we want to turn a corner, we must turn off this differential lock mode. If so, this mechanism is also quite inconvenient for users, so they will design a non-slip differential, then the first type of anti-slip differential is a differential that has clutch, then you can see on the picture that there are two clutches on either side. When these clutches are activated, it will lock the two wheels moving at the same speed, and to activate these clutches, it will use the oil pump system to bring oil to the engine. squeeze the clutches. Then the second type of non-slip differential that I want to present here is the one called the lotus (also known as the worm gear differential), structurally it will not use the wheels. Planetary teeth are like ordinary differentials that will use screws based on sun gears, then look at the illustration, you will see that each screw has a middle part. is meshed with the sun gear.
And at the two ends of the screw it will have two gears and these two gears will mesh with the two gears of the neighboring screw, then when it fits together like that if in In case that this screw rotates, the screw on the other side also rotates in the opposite direction and it rotates at the same speed, the principle of operation of this screw will be based on one feature, that is. is that when the sun gear it rotates, it will make this screw rotate, and vice versa if this screw rotates, it will not be able to make the sun gear below rotate with it, That is, it can move from the sun gear to the screw, and the reverse is not possible, then this differential under normal conditions, it works like an open differential. said above. That is, when cornering, it also makes the wheel on the outside it will rotate faster than the wheel on the inside, but it follows the formula ie the wheel on the outside is increasing by how much percentage, the wheel inside it will reduce its speed by that same percentage.
That is, the increase and decrease of the two wheels is that it will balance each other, but in the case that we are stuck on one wheel, for example, then it is the speed of the wheel that is bogged down. will be very high, whereas the wheel that is not bogged down will not rotate. Then this screw comes into play in that... now the ratio of the speed increase and decrease the speed of the two wheels is not equal, then the gear gets bogged down with it. rotates very fast, it will cause its screw to rotate, because this screw is engaged with the screw next to it, it will cause the screw next to it to rotate at the same speed. it. However, as I said before, if the screw rotates, it will not be able to make the sun gear at the bottom rotate with it, so in this case it must be locked. two semi-axles together, this time it will automatically lock the two wheels together and move at the same speed, in short, it will activate the hard lock of the two wheels. When the ratio of acceleration and deceleration on the two wheels is not equal, when it increases and decreases evenly, it acts like a normal differential.
In addition, on two-wheelers, people also have a center differential mounted in the middle connecting the front and rear axles, then this central differential can also be designed in the style of is the clutch, then as you can see in the picture, this is a central differential system of the Audi car company, this system will help distribute the driving force to the front and rear axle. followed by a certain ratio, depending on certain operating conditions of the vehicle. Then this adjustment is automatically controlled by the computer, in addition, on today's modern cars, people also have a way to prevent slippage for the differential by ie people only use Use the open differential only, but it will be combined with the electronic systems to control the brake system, then to prevent slipping, the electronic systems will receive signals from the brakes. different sensors and it activates the brakes.
On current pickups, it has bridge switches, it has modes such as 2H, 4H and then 4L or some other vehicles, it has a mode of 4HLC or 4LLC then 2H means we only use one bridge with high speed, and 4H means using two bridges with high speed, 4L means using two slow speed bridges, and if it has more from C means 4…. For example, 4HLC means using both high-speed bridges, but since the center differential is locked, when the center differential is locked, the transmission between the front and rear axles will be proportional. The ratio is 50:50, and when we install the 4LLC bridge, it means that the two slow speed bridges and the center differential will be locked. So above, I have presented about the differential, the structure as well as the operating principle of a differential in a car.
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